The use of an adequate modelling method can substantially reduce the cost and risk associated with a project. Nevertheless, it may be too much effort for many companies to develop high quality conceptual models from scratch. Reference models are generic models of certain domains, e. g. object models or process models, which should have been thoroughly developed according to high quality standards. Therefore, an adequate reference model can reduce development costs tremendously. From an economic point of view, reference models are extraordinarily attractive, since they promise to accomplish two goals, which are usually in conflict: higher quality at lower cost. However, the development of high quality reference models is facing severe challenges. Usually, semantics compromises the chance of reuse: The more specialized a particular model (the more meaning it represents), the higher its convenience of reuse, the lower, however, the chance that it fits a certain case. In order to overcome this conflict, it is required to develop concepts that allow for adapting reference models to individual needs both conveniently and safely. We have developed a number of adaptable reference models, such as object models, strategy models and a library of business process models. Further, the Open Model Initiative examines how to develop reference models collaboratively in an open and public process.



Prof. Dr. Ulrich Frank

Prof. Dr.

R09 R04 H27
+49 201 18-34042
Dr. Carola Schauer

Dr., (geb. Lange)

R09 R04 H32
+49 201 18-34066

Please note that this section only displays current staff. If you are looking for contact data from former staff, please go to the respective section.


  • Frank, Ulrich; Strecker, Stefan; Kattenstroth, Heiko; Heise, David: Wissenschaftliche Untersuchung zur „Integration der COBIT und ITIL Standards mit der Rahmenarchitektur IT-Steuerung Bund“. Essen 2011. Full textCitationDetails
  • Frank, Ulrich; Strecker, Stefan: Open Reference Models – Community-driven Collaboration to Promote Development and Dissemination of Reference Models. In: Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures, Vol 2 (2007) No 2, p. 32-41. CitationDetails
  • Frank, Ulrich; Strecker, Stefan; Koch, Stefan: ’Open Model’ - ein Vorschlag für ein Forschungsprogramm der Wirtschaftsinformatik (Langfassung) - ICB Research Report. 8. Essen 2007. doi:10.17185/duepublico/47160Full textCitationDetails
  • Frank, Ulrich; Strecker, Stefan; Koch, Stefan: ’Open Model’ - ein Vorschlag für ein Forschungsprogramm der Wirtschaftsinformatik. In: Oberweis, Andreas; Weinhardt, Ch (Ed.): eOrganisation: Service-, Prozess-, Market-Engineering (8. Internationale Tagung Wirtschaftsinformatik). Universitätsverlag Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe 2007, p. 217-234. Full textCitationDetails
  • Frank, Ulrich: Evaluation of Reference Models. In: Fettke, Peter; Loos, Peter (Ed.): Reference Modeling for Business Systems Analysis. Idea Group, 2006, p. 118-140. Full textCitationDetails
  • Schelp, Joachim; Winter, Robert; Frank, Ulrich; Rieger, Bodo; Turowski, Klaus (Ed.): Integration, Informationslogistik und Architektur. Proceedings der DW2006. 2006. CitationDetails
  • Koch, Stefan; Strecker, Stefan; Frank, Ulrich: Conceptual Modelling as a New Entry in the Bazaar: The Open Model Approach. In: Damiani, Ernesto; Fitzgerald, Brian; Scacchi, Walt; Scotto, Marco; Succi, Giancarlo (Ed.): Open Source Systems. Springer, Heidelberg ea. 2006. Full textCitationDetails
  • Frank, Ulrich: Model-Driven Planning and Development of Infrastructures for E-Commerce. In: Wang, Shan; Yang, Dongqing; Tanaka, Katsumi (Ed.): Conceptual Modeling for Advanced Application Domains. Springer, 2004, p. 679-690. CitationDetails
  • Frank, Ulrich: E-MEMO: Referenzmodelle zur ökonomischen Realisierung leistungsfähiger Infrastrukturen für Electronic Commerce. In: Wirtschaftsinformatik, Vol 46 (2004) No 5, p. 373-381. Full textCitationDetails
  • Frank, Ulrich; Lange, Carola: Corporate Strategies for Electronic Commerce - Stepwise refinement and mapping to generic business process models. Koblenz 2004. Full textCitationDetails
  • Frank, Ulrich: Modeling Products for Versatile E-Commerce Platforms: Essential Requirements and Generic Design Alternatives. In: Mayr, H. (Ed.): Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Conceptual Modeling Approaches for E-Business (ECOMO). Springer, 2002. Full textCitationDetails
  • Frank, Ulrich: A Conceptual Foundation for Versatile E-Commerce Platforms. In: Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, Vol 2 (2002) No 2. CitationDetails
  • Frank, Ulrich: Die Modellierung von Produkten für Handelsplattformen im Internet: Ein Ansatz auf der Basis von Metakonzepten. In: Jasper, Heinrich; Küng, Josef; Vossen, Gottfried (Ed.): Informationssysteme für E-Commerce: EMISA-2000. Universitätsverlag RudolfTrauner, 2000, p. 169-185. Full textCitationDetails